What Are Spatial Grid Structures?
The spatial grid structures are the spatial surface structures consisting of the interconnected at the intersections beams or trusses, which bend in two or more directions. Depending on the shape and nature of the connection of these elements the grid structures can be divided into cross shaped beams or trusses, cross shaped bar type slabs and plate shaped bar type systems.
The uniqueness of the spatial grid structure (SGS) consists in the even load distribution and leveling of the low and maximum loaded elements.
Possible Shapes of MARKHI Spatial Grid Structures
What are the advantages of structures shaped in this way?
- The structures become more resistant to the moving loads, in particular seismic loads
- They increase the mobility of inside supports and the possibility to rearrange them
- They increase the rigidity of the system - you can hang the additional equipment.
By the way, the system is called "MARKHI" for a reason, it was developed by the scientific-pedagogical staff of the department of engineering structures, and the result of lengthy research was published in 1969. The technology allows creating a structure of any form, which is cost-effective and aesthetic. Since the whole structure is assembled on the site, the transportation of the structure elements is a low-cost operation, and the installation is carried out in a short time.
The spatial grid structures can cover spans of up to 100 meters or more, besides the two-collar (single-layer) systems are used with the spans up to 60 meters. With an increase of the span up to 100 meters, in order to keep the standardized elements, it is advisable to switch to a three- or four-collar (two-or three-layer) support structure. A further increase of the span is achieved by designing of the combined structures in the form of a lattice slab, supported by an external strutted frame made of the rolled profiles or high-strength ropes.
The currently produced standardized assortment of the bar and load bearing elements of the "open" spatial structure of the "MARKHI" type has incorporated the best and cost-effective solutions from the ones previously used. The bar sections are matched using a certain gradation of stress from the minimum size which is defined by the maximum flexibility of the compressed three-meter bar, to the maximum which satisfies the greatest strain received by the thermally hardened bolt.
The effectiveness of the spatial structures nowadays is determined not by a single criterion, such as the material consumption, cost or complexity of the element manufacturing, but by a set of criteria such as reliability, durability, versatility, the possibility of unification, an architectural expression etc. The "MARKHI” structures to a large extent meet this set of criteria, which opens their broad application prospects both in the industrial and civil buildings and structures.
The spatial grid structures have the ability to create a variety of composite solutions not only for the surfaces, but also for the buildings as a whole. The spatial tent type frame in the form of a cube, four- or three-sided pyramid, etc. is achieved by cutting from the three-dimensional figure, completely filled with shaping pyramids or prisms, of the required volume or by a combination of the desired building volume from separate flat slabs connected to one another along the connection lines.
The "MARKHI" system has been successfully used in the other European countries. As a result of the free shaping, the crossed bar method allows creating a wide variety of metal frames, various internal volume and space. Examples of this are the numerous exhibition halls, indoor stadiums, ice palaces, trade and industrial warehouses. We have an excellent example of this construction like the machine halls of the Burey and Sayano-Shushenskaya power plants.